Research Projects Directory

Research Projects Directory

2,583 active projects

This information was updated 9/26/2022

The Research Projects Directory includes information about all projects that currently exist in the Researcher Workbench to help provide transparency about how the Workbench is being used. Each project specifies whether Registered Tier or Controlled Tier data are used.

Note: Researcher Workbench users provide information about their research projects independently. Views expressed in the Research Projects Directory belong to the relevant users and do not necessarily represent those of the All of Us Research Program. Information in the Research Projects Directory is also cross-posted on AllofUs.nih.gov in compliance with the 21st Century Cures Act.

184 projects have 'COVID' in the scientific questions being studied description
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Social Isolation Research Project

Is there a different in how college students perceive social isolation stress pre and post COVID-19? I want to explore the datasets available to better answer this question.

Scientific Questions Being Studied

Is there a different in how college students perceive social isolation stress pre and post COVID-19? I want to explore the datasets available to better answer this question.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Social / Behavioral
  • Educational

Scientific Approaches

I want to compare between groups of all ages and races any self- reported social isolation measures, self-reported stress levels, physical measures (heart rate, GSR) and cortisol levels, 3 years before COVID-19 and 3 years of COVID-19.

Anticipated Findings

I anticipate that self-reported stress levels and cortisol levels will be higher, and physiological health measures will decline during the 3 years of COVID-19.

Demographic Categories of Interest

  • Race / Ethnicity
  • Others

Data Set Used

Registered Tier

Research Team

Owner:

Disparities in Cervical Cancer Screening Among Hispanic Women

We propose using the All of Us Research Database to answer two primary scientific questions: 1. What was the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the cervical cancer screening behaviors of Hispanic women, compared to non-Hispanic White women, in the…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

We propose using the All of Us Research Database to answer two primary scientific questions:
1. What was the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the cervical cancer screening behaviors of Hispanic women, compared to non-Hispanic White women, in the United States?
a. Is this impact different between subgroups? We will specifically examine geographic regions of the country, immigration status, socioeconomic variables such as home community area deprivation index, and the impact of COVID-19 on both mental and physical health.
2. Have Hispanic women re-emerged into preventative screenings as the COVID-19 pandemic has continued?
a. Comparing screening rates for 2019, 2020 and 2021, we plan to examine if there is a responsive surge in catch-up screenings among Hispanic women, compared to non-Hispanic White women.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Population Health

Scientific Approaches

Our study will include Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women ages 18+ who are eligible for cervical cancer screening during 2019, 2020, and 2021. Cervical cancer screening will be identified based on the procedure of cervical cancer screening. The existence of COVID-19 will be classified firstly based on the onset of the COVID-19 in the U.S. Specific COVID-19 impact will be defined based on COPE survey questions. Descriptive analyses will be conducted to assess the screening rate over the study period and across US regions. The Cochrane-Armitage test will be performed to detect a linear trend of the screening rate. Multivariable logistic regression will be conducted to assess the association of COVID-19 impact and the likelihood of screening between Hispanic and non-Hispanic White women, adjusting for sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. Maps showing the screening rates during 2019-2021 across US regions will be created using visualization software, if possible.

Anticipated Findings

Studies have shown that the COVID-19 pandemic has led to a significant decrease in cervical cancer screenings across the country. However, few studies have examined the impact of COVID-19 on the Hispanic population, which even without the pandemic, bears a disproportionate cervical cancer disease burden. It is anticipated that cervical cancer incidence will sharply increase in the future without a responsive surge in screening as catch-up. Furthermore, the direct impact of COVID-19 has likely exacerbated the existing disparities in the cervical cancer burden due to compounding socioeconomic factors which were affected by the pandemic, such as insurance status, employment, and income. Our project is unique in that it addresses a vulnerable population that was made more vulnerable during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is also distinctive in that we aim to use these results to inform our own outreach efforts to expand cervical cancer screening among Hispanic women in our community.

Demographic Categories of Interest

  • Race / Ethnicity

Data Set Used

Controlled Tier

Research Team

Owner:

  • Tong Han Chung - Project Personnel, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston
  • Linh Nguyen - Project Personnel, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston

Collaborators:

  • Yen-Chi Le - Other, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston
  • Abigail Zamorano - Early Career Tenure-track Researcher, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston
  • Xochitl Olguin - Research Fellow, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston

Health Literacy & COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy

1. Is there a relationship between limited health literacy proficiency and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among racial-ethnic minority populations? Using All of Us, I intend to assess this relationship to better understand health literacy as a social determinant of health related…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

1. Is there a relationship between limited health literacy proficiency and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among racial-ethnic minority populations? Using All of Us, I intend to assess this relationship to better understand health literacy as a social determinant of health related to self-management/self-care among minority groups.

2. Of those reporting vaccine hesitancy with limited health literacy, what are the primary reasons for vaccine hesitancy?

3. How does limited health literacy associate with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among different racial-ethnic minority groups compared to non-Hispanic White groups?

4. Does birth status among racial-ethnic minority populations matter with relation to the association between limited health literacy and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy?

Project Purpose(s)

  • Population Health
  • Social / Behavioral

Scientific Approaches

I intend to utilize the following surveys for specific data:
- The Basics: Demographic data, data related to racial-ethnic minority group, and data related to immigrant status (born in US/not born in US)
- Overall Health: Data related to health literacy (using the BRIEF questionnaire)
- The Winter Minute Survey & the COPE survey: Data related to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy
- Social Determinants of Health Survey: Data related to english proficiency, which is a confounding variable

I will perform a preliminary analysis of adults not reporting as non-Hispanic White to assess the primary research question using the cohort builder and including those age 18 or older. Those with missing data will be excluded. I will utilize a multiple logistic regression model to assess the outcome.

Anticipated Findings

I anticipate that racial-ethnic minority participants will report higher rates of limited health literacy proficiency than non-Hispanic White participants, based on previous literature. Accordingly, I anticipate that these participants will report higher rates of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy due to a number of factors, but primarily based on the prevalence of misinformation present during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic years.

I would expect these results to better inform policymakers on addressing the root cause of vaccine hesitancy among racial-ethnic minority groups by addressing health literacy in these populations.

Demographic Categories of Interest

  • Race / Ethnicity

Data Set Used

Controlled Tier

Research Team

Owner:

  • Aryana Sepassi - Early Career Tenure-track Researcher, University of California, Irvine

Diabetes + Depression Coping Behaviors

We are interested in looking at patient reported coping habits during COVID and their associated impact on changes in A1c/depression among newly diagnosed patients with diabetes and mild-severe depression. Finding an association between coping habits and changes in health outcomes…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

We are interested in looking at patient reported coping habits during COVID and their associated impact on changes in A1c/depression among newly diagnosed patients with diabetes and mild-severe depression. Finding an association between coping habits and changes in health outcomes will inform development of new interventions to support newly diagnosed patients with diabetes and depression, especially during and after covid pandemic.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Disease Focused Research (type 2 diabetes mellitus)
  • Social / Behavioral

Scientific Approaches

Relationships will be investigated using the All of Us workbench and R. We will identify our target population with inclusion criteria of Diagnosis of Diabetes between 3/1-2019 and 3/1/2020. Target population will also be stratified by depression status using PhQ-9 scores (0-4: little to no depression, 5-9 mild depression, 10-14 moderate, 15-19 moderately severe, and 20-27 severe depression). We will analyze responses to the COPE survey to summarize reported coping behaviors among different groups of target population and estimate association of coping behaviors with changes in diabetes and depression outcomes.

Anticipated Findings

We are expecting to find that newly diagnosed diabetics with depression who engage in healthy coping behaviors, such as yoga and mindfulness, have improved A1c and depression outcomes than those who do not. A second hypothesis is that those who engage in unhealthy coping behaviors will have worse A1c and Depression. This will help researchers and clinicians develop more effective, at-home modules for patients with diabetes.

Demographic Categories of Interest

This study will not center on underrepresented populations.

Data Set Used

Controlled Tier

Research Team

Owner:

  • Benjamin Weitz - Undergraduate Student, University of Massachusetts Medical School
  • Daniel Amante - Early Career Tenure-track Researcher, University of Massachusetts Medical School

Collaborators:

  • Emmanuella Demosthenes - Project Personnel, University of Massachusetts Medical School
  • Dedeepya Billa - Graduate Trainee, University of Massachusetts, Lowell
  • Ben Gerber - Late Career Tenured Researcher, University of Massachusetts Medical School

PICAR - CT

Current literature calls attention to new and alarming records in drug-related deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 13% of Americans reported starting or increasing substance use as a coping mechanism for COVID-19…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

Current literature calls attention to new and alarming records in drug-related deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 13% of Americans reported starting or increasing substance use as a coping mechanism for COVID-19 related stress. (1) In addition, reports of anxiety and depressive disorders were also increased during the earlier months of the COVID-19 pandemic as compared to the same months in 2019. To date, the effects of COVID-19 related psychological distress and its associated outcomes remain largely un-investigated in communities of color partly due to stigmas surrounding mental health, medical distrust, and decreased behavioral health resource accessibility within these communities. (2-7) Results from this study are intended to highlight a need for continued expansion of equitable access to behavioral health resources and services among racial- ethnic minority communities.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Population Health

Scientific Approaches

Data on a cohort of racial-ethnic minority patients will be collected from the All of Us COPE survey database and reviewed for baseline and sociodemographic information. Participants eligible for inclusion in this study are those who self-report their race or ethnicity as Hispanic and/or nonwhite. The period of time from which data will be collected will be May 2020 through July 2020. Medication misuse will be defined as affirmative responses to the query “did you use prescription opioids/stimulants/sedatives in any way a doctor did not direct you to use it?”. Psychological distress will be classified using questions assessing mood and anxiety based on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) depression module and the Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7) mental health rating scales. Both screening tools are based on the DSM-IV criteria for major depression and generalized anxiety disorder and have well-documented reliability and validity in literature. (8,9)

Anticipated Findings

This study intends to provide an analysis of the COPE survey data to investigate the relationship between substance misuse and COVID-19 induced psychological distress among racial-ethnic minorities. As the immensity of both direct and indirect effects of COVID-19 remains under explored, investigating this topic in our study is paramount to further understanding substance misuse and behavioral health within these vulnerable populations. The overarching goal of this study is to utilize the granularity of ethnicities and races in the All of Us program to supplement recently described increases in rates of substance misuse amongst various racial and ethnic groups during the COVID-19 pandemic. We are hopeful that this study will inform on an area of focus which could promote health equity and overall improved health outcomes for minority communities. Results of this study have great potential to inform health services and policies.

Demographic Categories of Interest

  • Race / Ethnicity
  • Age
  • Geography
  • Access to Care
  • Education Level
  • Income Level

Data Set Used

Controlled Tier

Research Team

Owner:

  • Nana Entsuah - Project Personnel, University of California, Irvine

Collaborators:

  • Ding Quan Ng - Graduate Trainee, University of California, Irvine

Duplicate of Wearables Data and COVID-19 - Controlled Tier

Our primary goal is to understand the interaction between activity levels and the development, progression, and societal effects of COVID-19. These analyses will generate hypotheses guiding clinical and research interventions focused on activity and sleep to reduce morbidity and mortality…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

Our primary goal is to understand the interaction between activity levels and the development, progression, and societal effects of COVID-19. These analyses will generate hypotheses guiding clinical and research interventions focused on activity and sleep to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients seeking care.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Population Health
  • Social / Behavioral

Scientific Approaches

We will examine the relationship between daily activity (steps, activity intensity) over time and the prevalence of COVID-19. We will use the Fitbit data, EHR-curated diagnoses, laboratory values, quality of life survey results, and clinical outcomes (hospitalizations/mortality).

Anticipated Findings

We may find substantial variation in activity and disease prevalence/severity by socioeconomic status and/or location which would motivate studies/interventions to reduce these health disparities.

Demographic Categories of Interest

  • Race / Ethnicity
  • Geography
  • Access to Care
  • Education Level
  • Income Level

Data Set Used

Controlled Tier

Research Team

Owner:

  • STACY DESINE - Project Personnel, Vanderbilt University Medical Center
  • Hiral Master - Project Personnel, All of Us Program Operational Use
  • Aymone Kouame - Other, All of Us Program Operational Use
  • Jeffrey Annis - Other, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

HIV and COVID-19

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted global HIV care engagement services and impede the progress in ending the HIV epidemic. There is a growing evidence that HIV patients might have an elevated risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. However, the impact of…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted global HIV care engagement services and impede the progress in ending the HIV epidemic. There is a growing evidence that HIV patients might have an elevated risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes. However, the impact of the pandemic and/or SARS-CoV-2 infection on the clinical outcomes of HIV individuals is rarely investigated. This study aims to compare the differences of HIV clinical outcomes (CD4 count, viral suppression, disease progression) among HIV individuals with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection and whether such relationships would be modified by the demographics (age, sex, race, rurality), antiretroviral therapy (e.g., ART regimens), preexisting conditions (comorbidities), psychological wellbeing (e.g., depression, anxiety, resilience), healthcare utilization, and social environmental factors.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Disease Focused Research (Human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease, COVID-19)
  • Population Health
  • Social / Behavioral

Scientific Approaches

We will build HIV and COVID-19 datasets using cohort builder. We will use R or Python to program and coding the datasets. The statistical methods involve descriptive statistics (e.g., chi-square, t-test), regression models (e.g., logistic regression, Cox proportional hazard modelling), and other advanced statistical methods.

Anticipated Findings

We anticipate that HIV patients with COVID-19 infection might have worse HIV clinical outcomes and such association might be attenuated (e.g., antiretroviral therapy) or aggravated (e.g., preexisting conditions, social vulnerability) by different factors. The findings could help to reduce the health disparities, contribute to a better understanding of the interaction of the two virus-borne disease and inform the future research efforts to improve the health outcomes of HIV patients.

Demographic Categories of Interest

  • Race / Ethnicity
  • Age
  • Sex at Birth
  • Gender Identity
  • Sexual Orientation
  • Geography
  • Disability Status
  • Access to Care
  • Education Level
  • Income Level

Data Set Used

Registered Tier

Research Team

Owner:

  • Xueying YANG - Research Fellow, University of South Carolina

Collaborators:

  • Yunqing Ma - Graduate Trainee, University of South Carolina
  • xiaowen sun - Graduate Trainee, University of South Carolina
  • Ruilie Cai - Graduate Trainee, University of South Carolina
  • Jiajia Zhang - Late Career Tenured Researcher, University of South Carolina

Long COVID

The purpose of this study is to compile descriptive statistics of individuals who have been diagnosed as having long-COVID and compare to publicly available data sets to determine if the results of the All of Us Data Set matches data…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

The purpose of this study is to compile descriptive statistics of individuals who have been diagnosed as having long-COVID and compare to publicly available data sets to determine if the results of the All of Us Data Set matches data pulled from other sources such as the National Center for Health Statistics.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Control Set

Scientific Approaches

This study will be a comparison to determine if there is any variation between the All of Us Data set of individuals who have been identified as having long-COVID compared to publicly available data from other sources.

Anticipated Findings

I anticipate findings that the demographics from this study will match demographics from publicly available studies. This study will determine if the epidemiologic results found on long-COVID suffers is consistent between the All of Us Data set and other nationally available data.

Demographic Categories of Interest

This study will not center on underrepresented populations.

Data Set Used

Controlled Tier

Research Team

Owner:

HIV, MPX and COVID

There is strong evidence that people living with HIV (PLWH) are disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and monkeypox. Additionally, it has been shown that almost 40% of patients who develop monkeypox are HIV+. Early detection of infectious disease has…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

There is strong evidence that people living with HIV (PLWH) are disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and monkeypox. Additionally, it has been shown that almost 40% of patients who develop monkeypox are HIV+. Early detection of infectious disease has proven to lead to favorable health outcomes and can facilitate reducing viral transmission. Wearables provide an interesting avenue of research due to their ability to monitor patients continuously and longitudinally. This study aims to investigate differences in digital biomarkers collected from consumer wearables in PLWH, monkeypox, and/or COVID-19 and how they're impacted by demographics, such as age, sex, and race.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Disease Focused Research (HIV, monkeypox, COVID-19)
  • Population Health

Scientific Approaches

We will build cohorts of individuals with HIV, monkeypox, and COVID-19. We will use several statistical methods to compare differences in digital biomarkers collected from wearables between individuals with HIV, monkeypox, and/or COVID-19.

Anticipated Findings

The anticipated findings from the study are to generate detection algorithms from digital biomarkers between HIV, MPX, and/or COVID-19 to facilitate early disease detection and reduce viral transmission.

Demographic Categories of Interest

  • Race / Ethnicity
  • Sexual Orientation
  • Access to Care
  • Education Level

Data Set Used

Registered Tier

Research Team

Owner:

  • Eric Hurwitz - Graduate Trainee, Virginia Commonwealth University

Long term covid effects

To what extent are Latinx communities experiencing disparities two years into the Covid-19 pandemic when compared to Caucasian/white communities? Without understanding the long-term impact of covid on Latinx, the disparities in this community will continue to widen.

Scientific Questions Being Studied

To what extent are Latinx communities experiencing disparities two years into the Covid-19 pandemic when compared to Caucasian/white communities?
Without understanding the long-term impact of covid on Latinx, the disparities in this community will continue to widen.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Population Health
  • Social / Behavioral

Scientific Approaches

I will analyze the pandemic's impacts on the community in regard to finances, well-being, and health behaviors depending on available data. Then I would run a regression using Stata comparing the raw data of the Latinx community and the White community, to determine if there are significant disparities among one group.

Anticipated Findings

I expect to find that the Latinx community is being impacted in a different way than the white community due to pre-existing disparities.
For example, previous literature suggests that Latino's conditions have been exacerbated through the pandemic, but how so? And how different is it from the caucasian community?

Demographic Categories of Interest

  • Race / Ethnicity
  • Disability Status
  • Access to Care
  • Education Level
  • Income Level

Data Set Used

Controlled Tier

Research Team

Owner:

association between PAS kinase and disease

PAS kinase has already been shown recently to be a critical part of the body's system for regulating glycolysis and lipid biogenesis, and we hypothesize that variations in the PAS kinase gene and two of its substrates, USF1 and ATXN2,…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

PAS kinase has already been shown recently to be a critical part of the body's system for regulating glycolysis and lipid biogenesis, and we hypothesize that variations in the PAS kinase gene and two of its substrates, USF1 and ATXN2, also play a role in the development of metabolic or neurodegenerative disease. Uncovering links between different PAS kinase alleles and disease will potentially enable the development of new treatments for the diseases with which it may be associated. The specific phenotypes for which we are analyzing an association with PAS kinase are triglyceride levels, weight, blood glucose levels, various cardiovascular measures, exercise levels, and susceptibility to and duration of COVID-19.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Ancestry

Scientific Approaches

1. GWAS to stratify our cohort by genetic ancestry.
2. Calculate global and local ancestry with Eagle 2.4 for admixed groups
3. After stratification is complete, use PLINK v1.9 to analyze variants in the relevant genes by ancestral genetic group.
We will use BioBin to bin rare variants so that we can capture the relevance of any variation rather than just a specific variation. We'll also perform pathway analyses to control for the possible combined effects of different genetic variants rather than individual effects.
4. We will correlate global and local ancestry with results.

Anticipated Findings

We expect to find that variation in PASK is associated with blood glucose levels and triglyceride levels, based on what has been observed in PASK-deficient mice. We also expect to find that USF1 and ATXN2 variants have a correlation with a change in triglyceride levels. In general we expect to find that PASK has a variety of other unexpected associations, placed as it is at the center of metabolic regulation.

Demographic Categories of Interest

This study will not center on underrepresented populations.

Data Set Used

Controlled Tier

Research Team

Owner:

PICAR study

Current literature calls attention to new and alarming records in drug-related deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 13% of Americans reported starting or increasing substance use as a coping mechanism for COVID-19…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

Current literature calls attention to new and alarming records in drug-related deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 13% of Americans reported starting or increasing substance use as a coping mechanism for COVID-19 related stress. (1) In addition, reports of anxiety and depressive disorders were also increased during the earlier months of the COVID-19 pandemic as compared to the same months in 2019. To date, the effects of COVID-19 related psychological distress and its associated outcomes remain largely un-investigated in communities of color partly due to stigmas surrounding mental health, medical distrust, and decreased behavioral health resource accessibility within these communities. (2-7) Results from this study are intended to highlight a need for continued expansion of equitable access to behavioral health resources and services among racial- ethnic minority communities.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Population Health

Scientific Approaches

Data on a cohort of racial-ethnic minority patients will be collected from the All of Us COPE survey database and reviewed for baseline and sociodemographic information. Participants eligible for inclusion in this study are those who self-report their race or ethnicity as Hispanic and/or nonwhite. The period of time from which data will be collected will be May 2020 through July 2020. Medication misuse will be defined as affirmative responses to the query “did you use prescription opioids/stimulants/sedatives in any way a doctor did not direct you to use it?”. Psychological distress will be classified using questions assessing mood and anxiety based on the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) depression module and the Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7) mental health rating scales. Both screening tools are based on the DSM-IV criteria for major depression and generalized anxiety disorder and have well-documented reliability and validity in literature. (8,9)

Anticipated Findings

This study intends to provide an analysis of the COPE survey data to investigate the relationship between substance misuse and COVID-19 induced psychological distress among racial-ethnic minorities. As the immensity of both direct and indirect effects of COVID-19 remains under explored, investigating this topic in our study is paramount to further understanding substance misuse and behavioral health within these vulnerable populations. The overarching goal of this study is to utilize the granularity of ethnicities and races in the All of Us program to supplement recently described increases in rates of substance misuse amongst various racial and ethnic groups during the COVID-19 pandemic. We are hopeful that this study will inform on an area of focus which could promote health equity and overall improved health outcomes for minority communities. Results of this study have great potential to inform health services and policies.

Demographic Categories of Interest

  • Race / Ethnicity
  • Age
  • Geography
  • Education Level
  • Income Level

Data Set Used

Registered Tier

Research Team

Owner:

  • Nana Entsuah - Project Personnel, University of California, Irvine

Collaborators:

  • Ding Quan Ng - Graduate Trainee, University of California, Irvine

Age 18-25

I want to know the availability of Ventilators during the covid virus between age groups and ethnicity.

Scientific Questions Being Studied

I want to know the availability of Ventilators during the covid virus between age groups and ethnicity.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Educational

Scientific Approaches

I want to look at 18-25 yrs old Covid data, their length of stay in the hospital and the availability of Ventilator. I will be using qualitative measure.

Anticipated Findings

The anticipated findings is to investigate the age and racial disparity in the distribution of ventilator

Demographic Categories of Interest

  • Race / Ethnicity
  • Age
  • Sex at Birth
  • Gender Identity
  • Sexual Orientation
  • Geography
  • Disability Status
  • Access to Care
  • Education Level
  • Income Level

Data Set Used

Registered Tier

Research Team

Owner:

ABO PheWAS

Research questions: 1) Can our novel ABO blood typing algorithm using genetic data be used effectively to extensively type ABO subtypes from whole genome sequencing and array data in a diverse cohort? 2) Will a SNP approach for ABO blood…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

Research questions:

1) Can our novel ABO blood typing algorithm using genetic data be used effectively to extensively type ABO subtypes from whole genome sequencing and array data in a diverse cohort?
2) Will a SNP approach for ABO blood typing be concordant with available serotype?
3) What disease association ABO blood types can be replicated using the AllofUs dataset?
4) What novel disease associations, if any, with ABO blood types can be identified in a diverse cohort?

Relevance: Genomic variation in RBC and antigens is associated with a myriad of conditions. The ABO locus alone is associated with many conditions including venous thromboembolism (VTE), pancreatic cancer, malaria, and COVID-19. Furthermore, it is not common practice to extensively type beyond the traditional ABO blood groups, and the studies that do so are primarily done in individuals of European ancestry. Thus, we seek to do the first PheWAS on extensively typed RBC antigens and to do so in a diverse cohort.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Disease Focused Research (red blood cell (RBC) antigen-associated diseases)

Scientific Approaches

We plan to employ a blood typing algorithm to extensively type RBC antigens from 1) whole genome sequencing and 2) array data in the AllofUs cohort, and compare the two outcomes. Then, we plan to employ the phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) approach to identify associations between RBC antigen types and other clinical phenotypes. PheWAS will be carried out using multivariable linear regression and logistic regressions with ABO blood groups with our novel ABO blood type. For example, in the case of the ABO blood group, ABO blood subtypes (A101, A102, Aw01, B101, etc.) will act as the independent variable and phenotypes, derived from participant provided information (PPI) electronic health records (EHR), as the dependent variable. Initial models will include adjustments for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Differential associations by race/ethnicity, gender, and sex will also be evaluated.

Anticipated Findings

This proposed project aims to test our novel ABO blood typing algorithm on WGS and array data in the diverse AllofUs cohort. We also aim to replicate known RBC-disease associations as well as identify any novels ones that may be identified within a diverse cohort.

Demographic Categories of Interest

This study will not center on underrepresented populations.

Data Set Used

Controlled Tier

Research Team

Owner:

Collaborators:

  • Juvief Farol - Graduate Trainee, University of Arizona

Cancer and COVID

This is an exploratory study investigating the association between different treatment modalities and post-covid conditions in cancer patients.

Scientific Questions Being Studied

This is an exploratory study investigating the association between different treatment modalities and post-covid conditions in cancer patients.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Disease Focused Research (cancer)

Scientific Approaches

Survey data, electronic health record data and genomic data will be used in this exploratory study to formulate specific scientific questions.

Anticipated Findings

Potential findings from this study may help better understand the association of different cancer therapies with post-covid conditions in cancer patients.

Demographic Categories of Interest

This study will not center on underrepresented populations.

Data Set Used

Controlled Tier

Research Team

Owner:

  • Emily Lin - Other, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

Loneliness and Older Adults

Social isolation and loneliness have had significant health consequences for older adults throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. However, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of loneliness among older adults, especially among those from underrepresented demographics.

Scientific Questions Being Studied

Social isolation and loneliness have had significant health consequences for older adults throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. However, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of loneliness among older adults, especially among those from underrepresented demographics.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Disease Focused Research (major depressive disorder)
  • Population Health
  • Social / Behavioral

Scientific Approaches

Descriptive statistics will be used to characterize the prevalence of loneliness (using the UCLA Loneliness Scale Short Form) among older adults overall and by each sociodemographic characteristic. Logistic regressions will be used to estimate the associations between loneliness and depression and suicidal ideation (using PHQ-9 data), adjusting for age, sex, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic factors.

Anticipated Findings

We believe that a significant number of older adults will have high scores of loneliness throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, especially among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. We also hypothesize that the odds of self-reporting high depression as well as suicidal ideation will be elevated among those reporting high levels of loneliness compared to those not reporting high levels of loneliness.

Demographic Categories of Interest

This study will not center on underrepresented populations.

Data Set Used

Controlled Tier

Research Team

Owner:

  • Kevin Yang - Research Fellow, University of California, San Diego

AoU Research

1. Develop novel software tools to identify long COVID patients from EHR and integrate EHR, survey, and wearable sensor data for these patients. 2. Study the relationships between digital biomarkers from wearable sensor related to long COVID and the rate…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

1. Develop novel software tools to identify long COVID patients from EHR and integrate EHR, survey, and wearable sensor data for these patients.
2. Study the relationships between digital biomarkers from wearable sensor related to long COVID and the rate of long COVID complications in the EHR

Project Purpose(s)

  • Disease Focused Research (long COVID)
  • Methods Development

Scientific Approaches

Data integration, Result interpretation and statistical analysis and correlation between long COVID biomarkers and complications in EHR will be used. EHR data, wearable sensor data, and survey data from AoU will be used for this study

Anticipated Findings

We anticipate to provide a set of tools for future EHR data analysis in the AoU workbench and our findings can contribute to assessing the risk of long COVID.

Demographic Categories of Interest

  • Race / Ethnicity
  • Geography
  • Income Level

Data Set Used

Controlled Tier

Research Team

Owner:

Cervical cancer screening and COVID-19 psychosocial behaviors in Hispanic women

While the Hispanic population is the largest growing ethnic group in the U.S., Hispanic women disproportionately have poor cervical cancer outcomes. It is important to identify Hispanic women at risk for cervical cancer to provide adequate support and begin development…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

While the Hispanic population is the largest growing ethnic group in the U.S., Hispanic women disproportionately have poor cervical cancer outcomes. It is important to identify Hispanic women at risk for cervical cancer to provide adequate support and begin development of targeted strategies.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between cervical cancer screening and COVID-19-related psychosocial behaviors and stressors in Hispanic women. Three specific aims are (1) to compare the numbers of Pap and HPV screening performed in the baseline cohort (in 2018-2019) and COVID-19-impacted cohort (in 2020-2021) in Hispanic versus non-Hispanic white women; (2) to examine COVID-19-related psychosocial behaviors and stressors associated with cervical cancer screening; and (3) to explore the moderating effect of lifestyle (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, drugs, etc.) between COVID-19-related psychosocial behaviors and stressors and cervical cancer screening in Hispanic women.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Population Health
  • Social / Behavioral

Scientific Approaches

The COVID-19 Participant Experience (COPE) survey data (e. g., social distancing experiences, experience with COVID-19 or flu-like symptoms, vaccine perceptions, social and financial impact, and psychological aspects) and other All of Us data sets (e.g., demographics, medical history, etc.) will be utilized.
Descriptive analysis, logistic regression, and generalized linear mixed models will be used to identify population characteristics associated with a lower likelihood of returning for cervical cancer screening after COVID-19.

Anticipated Findings

This study will be the first to explore how COVID-19-related psychosocial behaviors and stressors would be associated with cervical cancer screening in the Hispanic population. The knowledge gained from this study could provide insights into outreach efforts to prevent Hispanic individuals at risk of delayed screening and diagnosis or later-stage presentation of cervical cancer, which may have implications for planning future cervical cancer screening strategies in the post-COVID-19 era.

Demographic Categories of Interest

  • Race / Ethnicity

Data Set Used

Registered Tier

Research Team

Owner:

  • Gee Su Yang - Early Career Tenure-track Researcher, University of Connecticut

Collaborators:

  • Teresa Graziano - Graduate Trainee, University of Connecticut
  • Aolan Li - Graduate Trainee, University of Connecticut

Type 1 Diabetes and Autoimmunity

What is the change in incidence of type 1 diabetes and/or autoimmune diseases before and after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic? This question is significance because it can provide more correlative data to the association between viral infection and…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

What is the change in incidence of type 1 diabetes and/or autoimmune diseases before and after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic? This question is significance because it can provide more correlative data to the association between viral infection and autoimmune development.
Are autoimmune diseases more prevalent in lower socioeconomic areas? This allows for more awareness if there is a stark difference based on zip code and can help focus campaigns targeted at lowering these rates.
Do COVID-19 hotspots/epicenters have higher rates of autoimmune disorders?
What is the distribution of autoimmune diseases across the country?

Project Purpose(s)

  • Disease Focused Research (Autoimmune diseases)
  • Population Health
  • Ancestry
  • Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI)

Scientific Approaches

I am looking to create heat maps for most of these questions especially the last one to see the distribution of autoimmune diseases and if they are related to lower economic status. In addition, I plan to use some statistics to see if there is a significant difference between the incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes before and after the pandemic. The tools within all of us database and outside readings will help me answer my research questions to know if there is an area to focus on following my wet lab research like my own community in Arizona. In addition, it will provide the foundation for my further research to know more as the relationship between viral infection and autoimmunity.

Anticipated Findings

I am anticipating that I will find a correlation between major COVID hotspots and rises in autoimmune diagnoses as well as lower socioeconomic zip codes having higher rates. Some of the supplemental questions contribute to these two overarching ideas and specify some details for them. However, the main idea is to see relationship between type 1 diabetes, autoimmunity, socioeconomic status, and viral infection. These notions will help the scientific community better understand autoimmune diseases and let public health know where to focus efforts.

Demographic Categories of Interest

This study will not center on underrepresented populations.

Data Set Used

Registered Tier

Research Team

Owner:

COVID-19 associated Taste and Smell

Taste and smell loss are distinct symptoms of COVID-19. However, the underlying mechanisms for this loss has not been fully explored. We seek to understand the potential genetic contributors to taste and smell loss in a diverse population of individuals…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

Taste and smell loss are distinct symptoms of COVID-19. However, the underlying mechanisms for this loss has not been fully explored.
We seek to understand the potential genetic contributors to taste and smell loss in a diverse population of individuals with COVID-19. Then we will also investigate the associated physical and mental health issues in these individuals.

Aim 1: COVID-19 related taste and smell alteration and genetic variants.
Aim 2: Association between COVID-19 related taste and smell alteration and physical/psychological health.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Disease Focused Research (COVID-19)
  • Population Health
  • Social / Behavioral
  • Ancestry

Scientific Approaches

COVID-19 diagnosis
Taste and Smell Measures
Genetics
Inflammatory Markers
Demographics - age, gender, ethnicity, race, height, weight
COVID-19 participant experience survey

Anticipated Findings

From our analysis we expect to understand the underlying genetic contributors to taste and smell loss in COVID-19 patients. The taste and smell loss in these patients is associated with their mental and physical health disturbance.

Demographic Categories of Interest

  • Race / Ethnicity
  • Age
  • Sex at Birth
  • Gender Identity
  • Geography
  • Disability Status
  • Access to Care
  • Education Level
  • Income Level

Data Set Used

Registered Tier

Research Team

Owner:

  • Paule Joseph - Early Career Tenure-track Researcher, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIH - NIAAA)

Code repository for GPH researchers (Allen W. built under S Cook)

Researcher have shown that there was an increase in discrimination some points of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many researchers have suggested a myriad of reasons why this may be. However, it remains unclear what the correlates and distribution of discrimination experiences…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

Researcher have shown that there was an increase in discrimination some points of the COVID-19 pandemic. Many researchers have suggested a myriad of reasons why this may be. However, it remains unclear what the correlates and distribution of discrimination experiences were for different groups of people. In addition, it is unknown how these experiences increased or decreased during high points in the pandemic. Lastly, it is unclear how social isolation and the disruption in human connection (e.g. with family, friends, etc.) may have been associated with the mental health effects of discrimination during the pandemic. This is of considerable public health significance because we must not only address the mental health needs of those in need, but understand the specific correlates of mental health, such as discrimination, to prevent such an uptick in mental health distress due to discrimination during the next pandemic.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Methods Development

Scientific Approaches

I plan on using the COPE data source from May 2020-February 2021 to examine changes in experiences of discrimination, social isolation, human connection, and mental health. I will utilize hierarchical linear models to asses random and fixed effects, as well as potential mediators and moderators. The COPE has questions related to discrimination experiences in each wave, family connections, social isolation, and mental health. I will also utilize the main survey to access basic sociodemographic information (e.g. race/ethnicity, age, socio economic status, etc.) to utilize as covariates in my analyses.

Anticipated Findings

Based on the extant research literature, I believe that we will find that there is a general uptick in perceived discrimination during COVID. In addition, we hypothesize that as discrimination experiences increase, so does poor mental health. We also hypothesize that social isolation will mediate the longitudinal relationship between perceived discrimination and perceive social isolation and perceived mental health. Lastly, we hypothesize a mediated-moderated model whereby those with perceived positive human connections who experience greater discrimination will report less social isolation and thus less poor mental health compared to those with perceived negative human connections who experience greater discrimination.

Demographic Categories of Interest

This study will not center on underrepresented populations.

Data Set Used

Controlled Tier

Research Team

Owner:

Collaborators:

  • Yumeng Ma - Graduate Trainee, New York University
  • Yingzhu Chen - Graduate Trainee, New York University
  • Yuhan Cui - Graduate Trainee, New York University
  • Xinyue Du - Graduate Trainee, New York University
  • Yiwen Chen - Graduate Trainee, New York University
  • Hsing-Chun Wang - Graduate Trainee, New York University
  • Tingjia Shi - Graduate Trainee, New York University
  • Sixian Ju - Graduate Trainee, New York University
  • Sherry Wu - Graduate Trainee, New York University
  • Sydney Hagley-Alexander - Graduate Trainee, New York University
  • Sandy Carrillo-Argueta - Project Personnel, New York University
  • Rebecca Yu - Graduate Trainee, New York University
  • Jose Pagan - Late Career Tenured Researcher, New York University
  • Jingwen Lei - Graduate Trainee, New York University
  • Emma Risner - Graduate Trainee, New York University
  • Naiyue Liang - Graduate Trainee, New York University
  • Yu-Ju Wang - Graduate Trainee, New York University
  • Binyu Cui - Graduate Trainee, New York University
  • Antoneta Karaj - Graduate Trainee, New York University

nehcgnail - Registered Tier Dataset v6

As more persons are exposed to and infected by SARS-CoV-2, reports of patients who experience persistent symptoms or organ dysfunction after acute COVID-19 and develop post-COVID conditions have increased. COVID-19 survivors have twice the risk for developing pulmonary embolism or…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

As more persons are exposed to and infected by SARS-CoV-2, reports of patients who experience persistent symptoms or organ dysfunction after acute COVID-19 and develop post-COVID conditions have increased. COVID-19 survivors have twice the risk for developing pulmonary embolism or respiratory conditions; one in five COVID-19 survivors aged 18–64 years and one in four survivors aged ≥65 years experienced at least one incident condition that might be attributable to previous COVID-19. This study will use a retrospective matched cohort design to explore and characterize post-COVID conditions.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Disease Focused Research (COVID-19)
  • Population Health
  • Social / Behavioral
  • Educational
  • Methods Development

Scientific Approaches

This study will be a retrospective cohort study. I will jointly use EHR and COVID-19 Participant Experience (COPE) survey data. OMOP CDM based phenotyping methods will be used for identifying the cohort from the EHR. I will use statistical methods and machine learning for data analysis. Programming languages include Python and R.

Anticipated Findings

Examine occurrences and prevalence of post-COVID clinical conditions. Characterize populations that are affected by high-profile post-COVID conditions. Identify risk factors of these vulnerable populations from their EHR.

Demographic Categories of Interest

  • Race / Ethnicity
  • Age
  • Sex at Birth
  • Gender Identity
  • Sexual Orientation
  • Geography
  • Disability Status
  • Access to Care
  • Education Level
  • Income Level

Data Set Used

Registered Tier

Research Team

Owner:

  • Chen Liang - Early Career Tenure-track Researcher, University of South Carolina

ARI Workspace V5 2022

We now have 4 goals in our research. This workspace is for goals 1 through 3. We have created a new workspace for Goal #4. 1. Determine prevalence of autoimmune diseases, individually and as a class of disease, in the…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

We now have 4 goals in our research. This workspace is for goals 1 through 3. We have created a new workspace for Goal #4.

1. Determine prevalence of autoimmune diseases, individually and as a class of disease, in the US.

2. Determine comorbidity of autoimmune diseases, including statistics on comorbidity of other autoimmune diseases and non-autoimmune diseases for each autoimmune disease.

3. Determine the impact of COVID-19 on the autoimmune and autoinflammatory disease population. This work will be conducted in parallel with work we are doing at University of Southern California under an IRB there.

4. Explore the genomic component of autoimmune diseases, particularly among patients with more than one autoimmune disease, so that the underlying mechanisms of disease among these diseases can be better understood.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Disease Focused Research (Autoimmune diseases)
  • Ancestry

Scientific Approaches

We will create three data sets for analysis:

1. A list of diseases rated in the following ways:

a. Evidence Class
i. Strong evidence it is autoimmune
ii. Moderate evidence it is autoimmune
iii. Weak evidence for autoimmunity
iv. A comorbidity of autoimmune disease
v. Symptom or symptom set with no known mechanism

b. Autoinflammatory versus autoimmune flag

c. “Not always autoimmune” flag – to indicate diseases that could have alternative mechanisms of cause

2. A list of patients, anonymized, with socioeconomic, geographic and other data that would be of interest to patients and public health officials to understand which communities are affected by these diseases
3. Outcomes data for patients over time assessing quality of life using PROMIS metrics

Anticipated Findings

The current NIH estimate of 23.5 million people with autoimmune disease was a guess by a knowledgable clinician, but has no scientific support. As a consequence, there are numerous figures in the public sphere and nobody knows which one is correct.

Many reports say autoimmune diseases are on the increase, but since the number is unknown, it is impossible to say whether this is a public health issue or not. Having a methodology that can be used to recompute the number of people with autoimmune disease will help us understand if these reports are true.

Demographic Categories of Interest

This study will not center on underrepresented populations.

Data Set Used

Registered Tier

Research Team

Owner:

Collaborators:

  • Francis Ratsimbazafy - Other, All of Us Program Operational Use
  • Jun Qian - Other, All of Us Program Operational Use
  • Jeremy Harper - Senior Researcher, Autoimmune Registry
  • Jeffrey Green - Project Personnel, Autoimmune Registry
  • Ingrid He - Project Personnel, Autoimmune Registry
  • Emily Holladay - Project Personnel, Autoimmune Registry
  • Chenchal Subraveti - Project Personnel, All of Us Program Operational Use
  • Adnaan Jhetam - Project Personnel, Autoimmune Registry
  • Alexander Burrows - Research Assistant, Autoimmune Registry
  • Jagannadha Avasarala - Other, University of Kentucky

Post Acute Sequelae SARS CoV-2 (PASC)

Question: To determine how physical activity during/following the acute SARS-Cov-2 infection and genomics may be predictive of PASC. Following infection with SARS-Cov-2, many individuals experience prolonged COVID-19 symptoms even after the acute illness has resolved. Persistent symptoms such as fatigue,…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

Question: To determine how physical activity during/following the acute SARS-Cov-2 infection and genomics may be predictive of PASC.

Following infection with SARS-Cov-2, many individuals experience prolonged COVID-19 symptoms even after the acute illness has resolved. Persistent symptoms such as fatigue, pain, irritable bowel, and impaired cognition characterize what is now known as Post-Acute Sequelae of SARSCov-2 (PASC). PASC is an emerging chronic multi-symptom illness (CMI), with similar characteristics, including post-exertional exacerbation of symptoms, as myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and Gulf War Illness. Previous work by our group has coupled exercise and other biological markers as a method for understanding CMI pathophysiology and subsequent changes in physical activity behavior.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Disease Focused Research (Post Acute Sequelae SARS CoV-2 (PASC))
  • Ancestry

Scientific Approaches

1. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) verified COVID-19 tests will be used to identify individuals with a previous COVID-19 diagnosis. Next, data from the COVID-19 Participant Experience (COPE) survey and additional reported symptoms/surveys will be used to identify participants who meet PASC/Long-COVID criteria following their respective diagnosis. The World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for PASC/Long-COVID will be used to assess eligibility.

2. Physical activity data will be used to characterize physical activity behavior in participants meeting Long COVID criteria compared to a healthy control sample. Physical activity behavior will include sitting time, walking time, moderate/vigorous physical activity, and total steps.

3. Potential genetic markers associated with Long COVID/PASC and physical activity behavior will be identified. These variables will be integrated via a machine learning model to determine if they can predict risk for Long COVID/PASC.

Anticipated Findings

We first want to better characterize symptoms and demographics of Long-COVID/PASC, given both the novelty and heterogeneity of this illness. Following characterization, we will identify relationships between physical activity, genomics, and PASC. We hope to construct machine learning models that may ultimately yield potential risk for developing PASC following an acute COVID-19 infection. Pending our findings, we may better understand how physical activity could be used a modifiable factor to reduce overall risk for PASC. Understanding how genomics, symptoms, demographics, and existing health conditions coincide with physical activity will also help identify other factors that may influence Long-COVID risk.

Demographic Categories of Interest

This study will not center on underrepresented populations.

Data Set Used

Controlled Tier

Research Team

Owner:

Cancer Care and COVID-19 Dataset v6

The goal of this study is to examine if COVID-19 changed the care of cancer patients. In particular, we are interested in examining if cancer patients during, before and after COVID-19 period have the same frequency of medical appointments. The…

Scientific Questions Being Studied

The goal of this study is to examine if COVID-19 changed the care of cancer patients. In particular, we are interested in examining if cancer patients during, before and after COVID-19 period have the same frequency of medical appointments.

The study will use the data to examine if medical care of cancer patients and non-cancer patients during the above period changed and if these changes are different by age, sex, race, and ethnicity.

Project Purpose(s)

  • Disease Focused Research (Cancer)
  • Social / Behavioral

Scientific Approaches

The datasets will come from: The Basics, Medical History, and Overall Health Surveys. Analysis will use logistic regression modeling.

Anticipated Findings

It is anticipated that there will be differences in the follow-up of medical care in cancer and non-cancer patients during the time periods that include pre-COVID-19, during COVID-19, and after COVID-19.

Demographic Categories of Interest

This study will not center on underrepresented populations.

Data Set Used

Registered Tier

Research Team

Owner:

  • Steven Hiek - Project Personnel, University of California, Irvine
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